What is HTML?
HTML is the standard markup language for making Web pages.
- HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
- It describes the structure of Web pages using markup
- The HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages
- These elements are represented by tags
- HTML tags label pieces of content such as “heading”, “paragraph”, “table”, and so on
- Browsers do not display the HTML tags but use them to render the content of the page
A Simple HTML Document
<h1>My First Heading</h1>
<p>My first paragraph.</p>
- The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration defines this document to be HTML5
- The <html> element is the root element of an HTML page
- The <head> element contains meta information about the document
- The <title> element specifies a title for the document
- The <body> element contains the visible page content
- The <h1> element defines a large heading
- The <p> element defines a paragraph
HTML tags are element names surrounded by angle brackets:
<tagname>content goes here…</tagname>
- HTML tags normally come in pairs like <p> and </p>
- The tag on the left-hand side in a pair is the start tag, the right-hand side tag is the end tag
- We can use end tag like the start tag, but with a forward slash inserted before the tag name.
Tip: The start tag is also called as an opening tag and the end tag as a closing tag.
The purpose of a web browser (Chrome, IE, Firefox, Safari) is to read HTML documents and display them.
The browser never display the HTML tags, but it uses them only to determine how to display the document in the browser:
HTML Page Structure
The visualization of an HTML page structure is given below:
Note: Only the content which is inside the <body> section (the white area above) is displayed in a browser.
The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration
The <!DOCTYPE> declaration shows the type of the document and helps the browsers to display web pages correctly.
It must appear only once, that is at the top of the page (before any HTML tags).
The <!DOCTYPE> declaration is not case sensitive.
The <!DOCTYPE> declaration for HTML5 is:
Since the early days of the web, there have been many versions of HTML: